Thymosin Beta-4 Research

By the conclusion of this review, you will gain a basic understanding of the research peptide  Thymosin beta-4, since we will have included all important scientific and anecdotal data on this peptide.

What is Thymosin Beta-4?

The Thymus gland is the source of the tiny, endogenous peptide known as Thymosin beta-4. It is a member of the family of lymphocyte growth factors known as ‘Thymosin’ and was first isolated from calf thymuses [i]. The most prevalent of the Beta-Thymosins is Thymosin Beta-4. Although the thymus gland is the primary location for this peptide, it is also present in the macrophages of the spleen and peritoneum [ii].

How Does Thymosin Beta-4 Function?

Studies suggest that Thymosin beta-4 is a multipurpose peptide that may mediate between cells during various wound-healing processes. Research suggests that it may perform several additional biological activities in addition to encoding gene fragments.

Ischemia and necrosis are late effects of tissue damage. Findings imply that Thymosin beta-4 may induce angiogenesis, possibly within the contexts of these conditions. Investigations purport that this effect may be achieved by enhanced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production. This protein controls the development of new blood vessels and aids in regenerating injured tissue [iii].

Mouse research suggests that Thymosin Beta-4 may inhibit cell death by blocking TGF- pathways in several organs and tissues. Particularly positive is that this may extend the viability of damaged eyes, heart, and nervous cells.

Studies suggest that Thymosin Beta-4 may possess anti-microbial characteristics that are worth noting. Research suggests that improved cell survival is only one of the many properties of a clean wound site, which also protects against infection [iv].

Early wound site inflammation and edema aggravate tissue damage, making its management a priority. Findings imply that Thymosin Beta-4 may stop the production of inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), potentially limiting damage spread.

Investigations suggest that as soon as the wound is stabilized, Thymosin Beta-4 may regenerate the damaged tissue by encouraging the proliferation, migration, and differentiation of stem cells [v]. This may possibly be achieved by sequestering actin monomers, preserving large levels of unpolymerized actin, an essential component of cellular motility.  

Research suggests that hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) may be protected against fibrotic injury in the liver by Thymosin Beta-4.

Thymosin Beta-4 Peptide Potential

Animal models have observed in research studies of Thymosin Beta-4 to examine its potential properties.

Studies suggest that Thymosin Beta-4’s potential anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory characteristics may make it useful for modulating tissue repair.  

Myocardial infarction happens when a portion of the heart suddenly loses blood and oxygen supply, which may be fatal. Research suggests that Thymosin beta-4’s possible anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory function [vi]  may protect the damaged area of the heart.

Thymosin beta-4 has suggested promising properties in corneal damage caused by prolonged chemical exposure. This peptide may possibly protect the cornea by decreasing inflammation, blocking apoptosis, and maintaining cellular matrix homeostasis.

Several studies suggest that glycine in combination with Thymosin beta-4 substances may possibly alleviate dry eyes and lower levels of inflammatory cytokines [vii].

Blunt force injuries, infections, and substances that disrupt normal biochemical processes may all cause liver damage. To potentially avoid fibrotic scarring in the liver, Thymosin Beta-4 may use its anti-oxidative properties, as suggested by research.

Thymosin beta-4 was speculated to stimulate fibronectin expression in dermal papilla cells, which led to hair development and may serve as a remedy to hair follicle damage and loss [viii], which was suggested in research on mice.

Researchers speculate that these peptides may have a similar purpose in promoting healing via comparable methods, although they originate from different sources. Scientists hypothesize that many diseases, such as colon cancer and ulcerative colitis [ix], may be mitigated with Thymosin Beta-4 due to it’s proposed potential to reduce inflammation in sick and damaged tissues.

TB-500 vs. Thymosin Beta-4

TB-500 and Thymosin Beta-4 are different peptide compounds. TB-500 was developed by laboratory synthesis; it is related to Thymosin beta-4. The peptide fragment (17)LKKTETQ is considered to be responsible for TB-500’s primary potentially efficacious characteristic.

Sharing the same peptide fragment lends support to the theory that TB-500 may exhibit similar properties as Thymosin Beta-4. Studies suggest that TB-500’s potential efficacy may be greater than those of the original naturally occurring chemical.

Studies suggest that these peptides may have a similar purpose in promoting tissue repair via comparable methods, although they originate from different sources.

If you are a researcher interested in further studying this compound, visit Core Peptides, the most reliable online vendor. 

References

[i] Hannappel E, Huff T. The thymosins. Prothymosin alpha, parathymosin, and beta-thymosins: structure and function. Vitam Horm. 2003;66:257-96. doi: 10.1016/s0083-6729(03)01007-0. PMID: 12852257.

[ii] Sosne G, Christopherson PL, Barrett RP, Fridman R. Thymosin-beta4 modulates corneal matrix metalloproteinase levels and polymorphonuclear cell infiltration after alkali injury. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Jul;46(7):2388-95. doi: 10.1167/iovs.04-1368. PMID: 15980226.

[iii] Zhao Y, Song J, Bi X, Gao J, Shen Z, Zhu J, Fu G. Thymosin β4 promotes endothelial progenitor cell angiogenesis via a vascular endothelial growth factor‑dependent mechanism. Mol Med Rep. 2018 Aug;18(2):2314-2320. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2018.9199. Epub 2018 Jun 20. PMID: 29956769.

[iv] Huang LC, Jean D, Proske RJ, Reins RY, McDermott AM. Ocular surface expression and in vitro activity of antimicrobial peptides. Curr Eye Res. 2007 Jul-Aug;32(7-8):595-609. doi: 10.1080/02713680701446653. PMID: 17852183; PMCID: PMC2430515.

[v] Morris DC, Chopp M, Zhang L, Zhang ZG. Thymosin beta4: a candidate for treatment of stroke? Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010 Apr;1194:112-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05469.x. PMID: 20536457; PMCID: PMC3146053.

[vi] Bao W, Ballard VL, Needle S, Hoang B, Lenhard SC, Tunstead JR, Jucker BM, Willette RN, Pipes GT. Cardioprotection by systemic dosing of thymosin beta four following ischemic myocardial injury. Front Pharmacol. 2013 Nov 29;4:149. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2013.00149. PMID: 24348421; PMCID: PMC3843122.

[vii] Jin R, Li Y, Li L, Kim DH, Yang CD, Son HS, Choi JH, Yoon HJ, Yoon KC. Anti-inflammatory effects of glycine thymosin β4 eye drops in experimental dry eye. Biomed Rep. 2020 Jun;12(6):319-325. doi: 10.3892/br.2020.1296. Epub 2020 Apr 2. PMID: 32382416; PMCID: PMC7201140.

[viii] Philp D, St-Surin S, Cha HJ, Moon HS, Kleinman HK, Elkin M. Thymosin beta 4 induces hair growth via stem cell migration and differentiation. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 Sep;1112:95-103. doi: 10.1196/annals.1415.009. PMID: 17947589.

[ix] Xing Y, Ye Y, Zuo H, Li Y. Progress on the Function and Application of Thymosin β4. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2021 Dec 21;12:767785. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2021.767785. PMID: 34992578; PMCID: PMC8724243.

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